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Absolute Value – Definition, Methods & Examples

Absolute Value – Definition, Methods & Examples


Absolute value, or Intrinsic Value, relates to a business valuation method that practices discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to regulate a company’s financial worth. The model uses the information presented in a company’s financial statements & books of accounts to reach its intrinsic or actual worth. Two kinds of absolute valuation models: Dividend Discount Model & Discounted Cash Flow Model.

Moreover, the absolute valuation method is reductive as the analysis focuses on the company’s characteristics in seclusion. It is essential to remember that a business’s absolute value differs from its relative value.

How Does Absolute Value Work?

The Absolute Value method intends to measure the financial worth of a company through its intrinsic values or expected forthcoming cash flows. There are several ways through which value investors scrutinize whether a stock is undervalued or overvalued. These methods include price-to-earnings, price-to-book ratio & discounted flow analysis methods.

Additionally, numerous business valuation methods are subdivisions of the DCF model, and these methods utilize discounted rates when evaluating the cash flow to get the company’s absolute value.

Types of Absolute Value Methods:

  1. Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model:

The Discounted Cash Flow model functions as the valuation of everything that affects cash flow, i.e., shares, bonds, an entire business, or a project within a company. The DCF model utilizes a formula to calculate a business’s profit rate by evaluating predicted payments and amounts soon to be receivable.

  1. Dividend Discount Model (DDM):

Accordingly, the upcoming dividends generated by a company’s securities provide a fair demonstration of the intrinsic value of that business once discounted to its present value. The DDM presumes the future cash flows of a company are equivalent to dividends generated on its shares & consequently distributed to stakeholders.

Absolute Valuation Formula:

Knowing what Absolute valuation is, let’s contemplate the formula to calculate the absolute value of the company. Resultantly, there are two formulas. First, it is used to find the absolute value of a business, and second, it deals with finding the absolute value of a company’s stock.

  • Absolute Value Formula = ∑ [(CFi / (1 + r)i) + (TV / (1 + r)n)]

Importance of Absolute Stock Valuation:

In general, Absolute valuation is an essential criterion for finding the value of a business or a company’s stock. Most investors use the DCF model to gain the absolute valuation of the company.

Supposedly, an analyst tries to do the absolute valuation of 123 Ltd & 456 Ltd, and the following are the results. While computing the value for 123 Ltd, noticeably, the company’s stock values more than its actual price. Whereas in the case of 456 Ltd, the value of the stock was ten times more than the stock price.

Consequently, where will the analyst invest in an overvalued or undervalued company? Well, it would be best if the analyst chose an undervalued company. As an overvalued company will always be distressed about busting the bubble, the analyst won’t invest in it. Comparatively, the risk is less if the analyst invests in an undervalued company. Therefore, absolute valuation aids in identifying the risks.


In conclusion, absolute valuation in finance is a precarious methodology for determining an asset’s or investment’s intrinsic value, independent of market sentiment & relative comparisons.

It relies on fundamental analysis, considering cash flows, earnings, growth prospects, and risk to arrive at a fair and objective valuation. While it provides a solid foundation for making investment decisions, it has limitations, such as sensitivity to input assumptions and the inability to account for market dynamics.

As such, relative valuation methods usage is to understand comprehensively.

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